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SCHOOL OF BUDDHISM

 
 

 
 
Boudha Multiple Campus (BMC) Boudha, Kathmandu, Nepal
Tel : +977-01-4915592, email :community3333@gmail.com Website: www.boudhacampus.edu.np..MORE 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

School of Buddhism

 
 

af}4 ax'd'vL SofDk;sf] af}4 lzIff sfo{qmd-Buddhist Studies Program)M ;~rfng ;fGble{stf ljifos cjwf/0ff kq SofDk; Joj:yfkg ;ldltsf] ldlt @)^& dfu{ @% sf] lg0f{o, af}4 lzIff ;+of]hg ;ldltsf] kf}if ( sf] lg0f{o tyf ljz]if1 e]nfsf] kf}if !% ut]sf] lg0f{o cg';f/ ul7t cjwf/0ff kq d:of}bf ;ldlt M :f+of]hs tyf Joj:yfkg ;ldlt pkfWoIfM ;Dk'0f{ s'df/ nfdf :fb:oM cfrfo{ gf]j'{ z]kf{ ;b:oM 6Lsf z]kf{ :fb:oM :fb:oM :f"o{jHf| nfdf ;b:oM 6f;L s'df/ nfdf ;b:oM gL/h nfdf ;b:oM df]xg vltj8f f/f k|:t't cjwf/0ff kq @)^& kf}if #) af}4 lzIff sfo{qmd-School of Buddhism)M ;~rfng ;fGble{stf != kl/roM hg;xeflutfdf ;~rflnt af}4 ax'd'vL SofDk;n] o;} jif{ lqe'jg ljZjljBfnoaf6 ;DjGwg k|fKt u/L JoJf:yfkg ;+sfosf] tLg aif]{ JfLaLP; sIff ;~rfng u/]sf]5 . clxn] pRr lzIffdf u'0f:t/sf] eGbf nufgL tyf d'gfkmfsf] k|lt:kWff{ pRr x'b} uO/x]sf] ;Gbe{df af}4 If]qdf hg;xof]u tyf ;xeflutfdf d'gfkmf /xLt z}lIfs ;+:yfsf] :yfkgfn] pRr lzIffdf o; If]qsf ;j} k]zf, Joj;foL, pBdL tyf ;fdflhs ;/f]sf/jfnfxs?sf] of]ubfg dxTjk"0f{ 5 eGg] s'/f a'g ;lsG5 . Go'gtd z'Nsdf u'0f:t/Lo lzIff lbg] clek|fon] ljZjljBfnoLo lzIffdf ;j}sf] kx'Fr x'g'k5{ eGg] dfGotf cg'?k o; SofDk;n] pb3f6g jif{sf] ;Gbe{df AfLaLP;sf 5fqfx?nfO{ kmf/d z'Ns ? !)) dfq lnO{ of] jif{ lgz'Ns cWofkgsf] ;'ljwf pknAw u/fPsf]5 . tLg jif]{ aLaLP;df dlxnfx?nfO{ Ps jif{ lgz'Nstfsf] Joj:yf u/]/ pRr lzIffdf dlxnfx?nfO{ cj;/ k|bfg ug]{ of] lemgf] k|of;sf] lg/Gt/tf rfFlx ;dfh, /fi6sf] ;xof]u / ;befjdf g} e/k5{ eGg] nfUb5 . t;y{ af}4 SofDk; ;fdflhs lhDd]af/L k|lt cfgf] OdfGbf/Ltf k|s6 ub{5 / lg/Gt/tfsf] c7f]6 ub{5. SofDk; :yfkgfsf] ;Gbe{df ul/Psf k|ltj4tfx?, SoDk;sf] ;fj{hlgs e};s]sf] b; jif]{ sfo{qmdsf] nIf Pjd :yfgLo j'l4hLlj tyf ;dfh;]jLx?sf] ck]Iff cg'?k o; SoDk;n] af}4 lzIff (Buddhist Studies) sf] z}lIfs sfo{qmdnfO{ klg ;df]j]z ug]{ k|of; u/]sf]5 . lzIffnfO{ :yfgLo cfjZostf tyf ;dflhs ljlzi6tf cg';f/ jgfOg' k5{ eGg] Wo]osf ;fy o; SofDk;n] af}4 lzIffsf] sfo{qmd k|:t't u/]sf]5 . ljljwtfk"0f{ ef}uf]lns ljlzi6tf, eflifs / ;fF:s[lts cg]stf tyf /fli6o Pstf g]kfnsf df}lns kl/ro x'g\ . cem SofDk;sf] cjl:yltnfO{ x]g]{ xf] eg] klg af}4 If]qsf] P]ltxfl;s, k'/ftflTjs ljz]iftf tyf snf Pjd\ ;F:s[ltn] /fli6o / cGt/fli6o dxTj kfPsf]5 . o;} ;Gbe{df af}4 lzIff dfkm{t jf}4 bz{g, snf, ;flxTo, Oltxf;, ;F:s[lt tyf k'/ftflTjs ljlzi6tfsf] cWoog, cWofkg, cg';Gwfg u/L k"jL{o bz{gsf] k|j4{g ug{ afG5gLo 5 . dfgjhftLsf] sNof0fsf lgldQ ;dtfd'ns ;dfhsf] lgdf{0fdf j'4sf pkb]zx? ;j}sf nflu cfbz{ jGg ;S5g . P]ltxfl;s n'lDjgL, :joDe" tyf jf}4gfy h:tf :yfgx? wdf{jnDJfLx?sf nflu lty{:yn, zf]w tyf cg';Gwfgstf{x?sf nflu P]ltxfl;s tyf k'/ftflTjs dxTjsf 5g\ . t;y{ dfgj ;Eotfsf] ljsf;qmdnfO{ j'em\g klg af}4 lzIff -bz{g_ ;xof]uL x'g ;S5 . jf}4 lzIffnfO{ jftfj/0f , ;fdflhs ;befj tyf Gb lg?k0f ug]{ pkfosf] ?kdf klg o;sf] cWoog eO/x]sf] b]lvG5 . klZrdf ljfg tyf ljz]if1x?n] ;d]t cTolws rf;f] lbO/x]sf] k"jL{o af}4 bz{gsf] h;sf] pb\ej kRrL; ;o jif{ cl3 g]kfne"dLjf6 ePsf] lyof] , k|j4{g ug'{ xfd|f] ;femf st{Jo xf] eGg] xfdLnfO{ nfUb5 . oL g} k|z:t ;+efjgfx?sf jLrdf cjl:yt af}4 If]qdf :yflkt o; jf}4 jx'd'vL SofDk;n] af}4 lzIffnfO{ ;dfj]z ub}{ af}4 ;+:s[lt tyf snfsf] k|j4{g ug{ :fS5 eGg] ljZjf; JoQm ug{ ;lsG5 . @= af}4 ax'd'vL SofDk;df af}4 lzIffsf] cf}lrTotfM af}4 ax'd'vL SofDk;n] af}4 lzIffsf] cf}krfl/s k|j]zsf] k|:tfjnfO{ o;sf] cjl:ylt hxfF blIf0f Plzofs} 7"nf] af}4 :t'kf /x]sf] 5 h'g af}4 wd+{sf ltyf{n'f/f lgTo cleGflGbt x'G5 Pjd\ ko{6sLo cfsif{0f k|fKt u/]sf]5, n] a'4 hGd]sf] b]z eg]/ lrlgg] g]kfnsf] 5ljnfO{ cGt/fli6o:t/df ;d]t k|rf/ dxTj k|bfg ug]{ tyf snf ;flxTo cf} ;+:s[ltsf] ;+/If0f tyf k|j4{g ug]{ ;Gbe{jf6 j'em\g cfjZos 5 . hg:t/jf6 o; If]qdf ePsf] of] k|of;n] snfsf] Jofj;flos ljsf;,Kf'/ftflTjs cg';Gwfg tyf cGt/fli6o ;DjGw lj:tf/df ;d]t of]ubfg k'ofpg ;S5 . P]ltxfl;s w/f]x/x?sf] ;+/If0f, ;Dj4{g tyf cWoog s]jn /fHosf]dfq bfloTj xf]Og clkt' ;fdflhs ?kn] xfdL ;j}sf] gfu/Ls st{Jo klg xf] . o;y{ af}4 lzIffnfO{ s]jn pkflwsf] ?kdf dfq xf]Og Jofj;flos tyf hLjgf]kof]uL lzIffsf] ?kdf ;d]t ljsf; ug{ cfjZos 5 . af}4 ;flxTosf] k|rf/ k|;f/, af}4 ;+:s[ltnfO{ af:t'snf, d'lt{snf, wft'snf, lrqsnf -yfFsf_ ;d]tdf k|ltljlDjt x'g] u/L tT;DjlGw bIf hgzlQm pTkfbg u/L lzIffnfO{ k]zfut ljlzli6s/0fsf] ljsf;df ;3fp k'ofpFb} g]kfnsf] ul/dfnfO{ cGt/fli6o Voflt;FUf hf]8g ;lsG5 . /fli6o Pstf d'n'ssf] snf / ;F:s[lt;Fu hf]l8Psf] x'G5 / To:tf] ;fdflhs ;F:s[lt ;dfhsf] ;Fof} jf xhf/f} jif{sf] clj/fd cEof;jf6 >[lht x'G5 h;nfO{ hglxtsf kIfdf pkof]u ug{ ;lsG5 . t;y{ To:tf] ;F:s[ltsf] ;Dj4{gdf ;j}sf] rf;f] / lrGtf cfjZos 5 . o;n] ko{6sLo lj:tf/sf] ;DefjgfnfO{ ;d]t yk of]ubfg k'ofpg ;Sb5 . af}4 If]q ToxL snf, ;flxTo / ;F:s[ltn] k"0f{ pj{/ If]q ePsfn] af}4 lzIffsf] cWoog cg';Gwfgsf nflu pkof]uL x'g ;S5 eg] o;} If]qdf cjl:yt af}4 u'Djfx?df cEof; u/LPsf] u'?s'n k4ltsf] u'Djf lzIffnfO{ klg klg kl/dfh{g u/L ljBfno lzIff tyf ljZjljBfno lzIffsf] ;dsIfL!jgfpg] dfu pl7/x]sf] ;Gbe{df pbfx/0fLo AfGg ;Sb5 . #= ;fdflhs k|efjM af}4 lzIffn] o; If]qdf /x]sf ;j} hfthftL wd{ ;Dk|bfo jLr ;f}xfb|{ ;DjGwsf] ljsf; ug{, P]ltxfl;s tyf k'/ftflTjs cWoogdf ?rL a9fpg, af}4 ;F:s[lt / snf ;Fu hf]l8Psf P]ltxfl;s :ynx?sf] cWoog, cjnf]sg ug{ u/fpg ;d]t clek|]l/t ub{5 . :yfgLo hgr]tgfn] dfq} Tof] If]qsf] jfXo Wofgfsif{0f u/fpg ;Sb5 . o;y{ af}4 lzIffn] :yfgLo snf / ;Lksf] ljsf;df hgrf;f] a9fpg ;xof]u ub{5 eg] b}lgs hLjgdf ;Dos ljrf/ lrGtgsf nflu k|]/0ffbfoL x'g ;Sb5 . cem egf} af}4 lzIffn] k]zfut ljlzli6s/0fsf If]qx? h:t} snf, ;flxTo, cGf';Gwfg, ko{6g cflbsf] ljsf;df ;d]t 6]jf k'ofpFb5 . $= af}4 lzIff sfo{qmdx?M af}4 lzIff ;~rfng ;DjGwdf af}4 SofDk;n] k|:tfj u/]sf sfo{qmdx? o; k|sf/ /x]sf 5g\ M s_ ljZjljBfnoLo af}4 lzIffM DffGotf k|fKt ljZjljBfnojf6 ;DjGwg k|fKt u/L :gfts tx, Ps jif]{ lkhLl8, jf :gftsf]Q/ txdf af}4 lzIffsf] ;DjGwg k|fKt u/L sIff ;~rfng ug]{, v_ cfwf/e't af}4 lzIff -Fundamental Buddhist Studies_M of] lzIff ljZjljBfno pkflwsf nflu ge} :yfgLo / jfXo cfaZostf cg'?k ;a}sf nflu x'g]5 . !_ :yfgLo cfjZostfM cgf}krfl/s lzIffdf ?rL /fVg] ;j} hftL, wd{, ;Dk|bfosf nflu cfwf/e't af}4 bz{g,snf, ;flxTo tyf k'/ftflTjs ljz]iftfx? jf/] hfgsf/L u/fpg] k|s[ltsf] cfjlws sIff ;~rfng x'g]5 . o;df u'Djf sIffsf ljBfyL{x? klg ;dfj]z x'g]5g\ . @_ afXo cfjZostf - ljb]zL ko{6s nlIft sfo{qmd_M of] sfo{qmd af}4 bz{gdf ?rL /fVg] ljb]zL ko{6sx?sf nflu af}4 bz{g cWoog s]Gb| -Buddhist Learning Centre_ sf] ?kdf af}Wb bz{g, Wofg, of]u cflb jf/] clt cNksflng -Llbj;Lo, qLlbj;Lo, ;fKtflxs jf kflIfs_ sfo{qmdx? ;~rfng u/Lg]5g\ . #_ Jofj:fflos snfsf] ljsf; ;DjlGw sfo{qmdM o; cGtu{t af}4 ;F:s[lt emNsg] wft', d'lt{, lrqsnf tyf k'/ftflTjs cWoog, cg';Gwfg;Fu ;DjlGwt Jofjxfl/s sIff -Applied Buddhist Studies_ x? ;~rfng x'g]5g\ . %= ;~rfng sfo{ljlwM s_ cf}krfl/s sIff ;~rfngM DffGoftf k|fKt ljZjljBfnojf6 ;DjGwg k|fKt u/L :gfts jf ;f] eGbf dflysf sIffx? ;~rfng ug]{ :fDjGwdf M  ljZjljBfnon] lgwf{/0f u/]sf] kf7\oqmd, kf7\oef/, d'NofFsg k|0ffnLsf] k"0f{ kfngf ug]{,  lglZrt z'Nssf] lgwf{/0f ug]{,  ljxfgL sIff :f~rfng ug]{,  sIff ;~rfngsf nflu dfGotf k|fKt ljZjljBfnosf bLlIft tyf of]Uotf k'u]sf k|lzIfsx?f/f cWofkg u/fOg],  pRr lzIffdf :jb]zL tyf ljb]zL ljBfyL{ nlIft sfo{qmdx? ;~rfng ug]{, v_ cgf}krfl/s sIff ;~rfngM  of] sIff af}4 bz{g ;flxTodf ?rL /fVg] ;j}sf nflu pkof]uL x'g]5 .  kf7\oqmd, kf7\oef/ tyf d'NofFsg ljlwsf nflu ljZjljBfnosf lafg, ljz]if1 tyf af}4 wd{sf u'?x? ;lDdlnt ;ldltn] lgwf{/0f u/] cg'?k x'g]5 .  cGo wd{ ;F:s[ltsf] kl/ro ;lxt af}4 bz{g, snf, ;flxTo, Oltxf; cflbsf] ljifo ;"rL ;dfj]z x'g ;Sg]5 .  of] sIff cfjlws tyf k|fljlws k|s[ltsf] x'g]5 .  sIff ;~rfngdf Wofg tyf of]u klg ;xfos x'g]5g\ .  k|To]s ;xeflujf6 Go'gtd z'Ns ;+sng u/Lg]5 .  ;Gbe{ ;"rLdf lxgofg, jh|ofg tyf dxfofgsf ljifoj:t'x? ;dfj]z x'g ;Sg]5g\ .  sIffnfO{ Joj:fflos tyf k]zfut ljlzli6s/0f ug{ wft'snf, lrqsnf, d'lt{snf, k'/ftflTjs cg';Gwfgsf nflu z'Ns ;lxtsf ljz]if k|fljlws sIffsf] ljsf; ug]{ .  ljxfgL sIffsf] sfo{qmd -b}lgs @ jf # 306f_ ;~rfng ug]{ .  k|lzIf0fsf] dfWod efiff lnlk kfnL, ;Def]6 jf cFu|hL x'g]5 .  k|lzIffyL{x?nfO{ oftfoftsf] ;'ljwf pknJw u/fpg k|of; u/Lg]5 . u_ ko{6s nlIft sfo{qmdM  of] sfo{qmd Buddhist Learning Center (BLC) sf] gfdjf6 ;~rflnt x'g]5 .  of] sfo{qmd z'Ns ;lxtsf] x'g]5 .  cfjZostf cg'?k Llbj;Lo jf qLlbj;Lo jf ;fKtflxs jf kflIfs sfo{qmdsf] nflu kf7\oqmdsf] Joj:yf u/Lg]5 .  af}4 ;+:s[lt snf emNsg] ;+u|x sIfsf] lgdf{0f ug{ k|of; u/Lg]5 .  BLC sf nflu a]Un} cfw'lgs k"jf{wf/sf] Joj:yf u/Lg]5 .  sfo{qmd ;~rfngsf nflu bIf of]Uo tyf ljb]zL efiff ljz]if1sf] klg ;xof]u lnOg]5 . 3_ sfo{qmdsf] pkof]lutf >[hgf ug{ lgDglnlvt ljlwx?sf] ljsf; ug{ ;lsg]5 M  8s'd]G6L lgdf{0f, k':ts tyf k'l:tsfx?sf] k|sfzg,  ;fF:s[lts emfFsLx?sf] k|bz{g,  ;fj{hlgs uf]li7, ;]ldgf/ cflb . ^_ k"jf{wf/sf] ljsf;M sIff ;~rfngsf nflu ef}lts k"jf{wf/x?sf] kof{Kt Joj:yf ePsf] x'g'kg]{5 . cem cf}Kfrfl/s ljZjljBfnoLo sIff ;~rfngsf nflu ljZjljBfnon] tf]s]sf] ef}lts k"jf{wf/sf] dfkb08 cjnDjg ug{ cfjZos 5 . ejg sIff sf]7f, k':tsfno, v]nd}bfg, z}lIfs ;fdfu[ sDKo'6/ ;'ljwf cflbsf] plrt Joj:yfkgdf Wofg k'ofpg' kg]{ x'G5 . cf}krfl/s tyf cgf}krfl/s sIff ;~rfngsf nflu laBfnosf lgoldt sIffx?nfO{ k|lts'n k|efj gx'g] u/L ljBfno sIff sf]7fx?sf] lh0ff]{4f/, dd{t ;+ef/ ub}{ ;~rfng ug{ cfjZos 5 . oBlk ljb]zL ko{6sx?sf nflu nlIft Buddhist Learning Centre sf] k"jf{wf/ eg] cfw'lgs ejgdf ef8fdf lnO{ ;~rfng ug{ pko'Qm x'g]5 . &_ ;+efjgfx?M  hg:t/jf6 af}4 lzIffnfO{ :f+:yfut u/L k|rf/, k|;f/ tyf lj:tf/ ug{ ;lsg],  af}Wb lzIffnfO{ Jofjxfl/s lZfIffsf] ?kdf Jofj;flos tyf k]zfut ljlzli6s/0fsf] dfWodjf6 ljsf; ug]{,  af}4 ;+:s[lt snf ;flxTo bz{g cflbsf] jf/]df cWoog , cg';Gwfg ug{ clek|]l/t ug]{ tyf o'jf :j/f]huf/ sfo{qmdnfO{ ;3fpm k'Ug] u/L 6'/ ufO8, wft'snf lrqsnf cflbsf] ljsf; ug]{,  af}4 bz{g, ;+:s[lt ;Fu ;DjlGwt 8s'd]G6L, clen]v tof/ ug]{ tyf k':ts k'l:tsfx?sf] k|sfzg ug]{,  ;fDk|bflos ;befj tyf /fi6sf P]ltxfl;s d7 dlGb/, u'Djf, r}To ljxf/ cflbsf] ;+/If0f ;Dj4{gdf hgr]tgf hufpg],  :yfgLo snf / ;+:s[ltsf] ;+/If0f ug]{,  ko{6g k|j4{g ug{ ;3fpm k'ofpg],  cGt/f{li6o s'6g}lts xflb{stfsf] ljsf;df ;3fpm k'Ug],  sIff * ;Dd af}4 lzIffsf kf7\oqmdx? tof/ eO{ cWofkg ;d]t ePsf] cj:yfdf cgf}krfl/s sIff ;~rfng ug{ ;xof]u k'Ug],  af}4 lzIffnfO{ Buddhist Learning Centre sf] dfWodjf6 lbuf] cflYf{s sfo{qmd (Sustainable Economic Program) ljsf; u/L SofDk;sf cGo Zf}lIfs sfo{qmdx? ;~rfng ug{ ;xof]u k'Ug],  af}4 lzIffsf nflu ljfg tyf ljz]if1x?sf] pknJwtfsf] sf/0fn] sIff ;~rfng ;xh x'g] . *_ r'gf}ltx?M -Major Challanges) s_ cfly{s ;d:ofx?M SofDk;sf] cfg} lgoldt >f]tsf] cefjsf sf/0f cf}krfl/s tyf cgf}krfl/s af}4 lzIff sfo{qmd ;~rfngdf jfwf k'Ug ;Sg] , v_ k'af{wf/sf] ;Df:ofM laBfnosf] l;ldt ef}lts k'af{wf/ tyf cf+lzs ;dodf cWoog cWofkg ug'{ kg]{ ePsfn] af}4 lzIffsf] Joj;flos sIff ;~rfngdf sl7gfO{ x'g], ;fYf} BLC sIff ;~rfngsf nflu cfw'lgs k"af{wf/sf] Joj:yf ug'{ kg]{ ePsfn] cfly{s >f]t Joj:yfkgdf sl7gfO{ x'g] . (+_ /0fg}lts pkfox? (Strategic Measures)M af}4 lzIffsf cf}krfl/s ty cgf}krfl/s sIfx?nfO{ Jojl:yt tyf k|efjsf/L agfpg] ;DjGwdf lgDglnlvt /0fg}lts pkfox?sf] cjnDjg ug'{ jf~5gLo b]lvG5 M  af}4 If]qsf wfld{s tyf ;fdflhs rl/qsf ;+3 ;+:yfx?sf] ;xof]u, ;xeflutf tyf ;fem]bf/Ldf sfo{qmd ;~rfng ug]{,  gu/kflnsf, lhNnfljsf; ;ldlt, ljZjljBfno cg'bfg cfof]u Pjd\ ljZjljBfno ;Fu ;DfGjo ug]{,  g]kfn ;/sf/sf ;DjlGwt dGqfno tyf ljefux? ;Fu ;DfGjo u/L sfo{qmd ;~rfng ug]{,  ljb]zL s'6lglts lgof]ux?jf6 ;xof]usf] ck]Iff,  cgf}krfl/s lzIffnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbb} cf}krfl/s ljZjljBfnoLo af}4 lzIffsf] k|rf/ k|;f/ ug]{,  sfo{qmd cfkm}df ;fWo xf]Og ;fwg dfq xf] . ctM af}Wb lzIffsf] pkflw kl5 s|]< eGg] k|Zgsf] pQ/df Jojxfl/s jf}4 lzIffdf hf]8 lbg],  sfo{qmdsf] k|rf/ k|;f/sf nflu SofDk;n] cfg} a]e ;fO6 tyf OG6/g]6, Od]nsf] lgdf{0f, k|of]u ug]{,  af}4 wd{, bz{g tyf snfdf ?rL /fVg] ko{6sx?sf nflu :yflgo xf]6n, 6'/ P08 6fen Ph]G;L dfkm{t ;dGjo u/L BSC k|rf/ ;fdfu[ ljt/0f ug]{,  sIffnfO{ k|efjsf/L jgfpg ;Dej eP;Dd Wofg of]u lzlj/ ;~rfng ug]{, tyf af}4, r}To ljxf/ cflbsf] z}lIfs e|d0f u/fpg],  BLC sfo{qmd dfkm{t jflif{s yk b'O{ xhf/ ko{6s af}4 If]qdf leqofpg ;lsof]] dfq eg] o;n] af}4 If]qsf] ljsf; tyf SofDk;sf] cfly{s ljsf;df ;xof]u k'Ug ;Sb5 ,  cgf}krfl/s tyf BLC sfo{qmdsf] ;~rfng SofDk;sf] Joj:yfkg ;ldltaf6 lgld{t ljfg tyf ljz]if1 ;lDdlnt ljz]if ;ldltn] lgwf{/0f u/] jdf]lhd x'g;Sg]5 . !)= sfo{qmd nfut tyf cfo ljj/0fM qmd ;+Vof ljj/0f cg'dflgt nfut ? cg'dflgt cfo ljj/0f ? s_ nfut ljj/0f ! cf}krfl/s :gfts sIff :fDjGwg #%),))) @ k':tsfno k':ts @)),))) # tnj tyf k|zf;lgs vr{ !@,)),))) $ k|rf/ k|;f/ vr{, ;ef uf]i7L @)),))) % BLC sfo{qmd 3/jxfn jflif{s ^,)),))) ^ BLC sfo{qmd ;~rfng vr{ jflif{s !%,)),))) & kmlg{r/ tyf kmlg{l;+u %,)),))) * ljBfno ef}lts k"jf{wf/ dd{t ;+ef/ @%),))) ( sDKo'6/ Nofj tyf sfof{no :yfkgf #%),))) v_ cfo ljj/0f !) z'Ns cfDbfgL aflif{s -BLC_ sIff ;d]t !%,)),))) !! ;+:Yffut ;xof]u #^,%),))) hDdf ? %!,%),))) %!,%),))) ============================))))))))))))))))===================== af}4 ax'd'vL SofDk;sf] af}4 lzIff sfo{qmd-Buddhist Studies Program)M ;~rfng ;fGble{stf ljifos cjwf/0ff kq SofDk; Joj:yfkg ;ldltsf] ldlt @)^& dfu{ @% sf] lg0f{o, af}4 lzIff ;+of]hg ;ldltsf] kf}if ( sf] lg0f{o tyf ljz]if1 e]nfsf] kf}if !% ut]sf] lg0f{o cg';f/ ul7t cjwf/0ff kq d:of}bf ;ldlt M :f+of]hs tyf Joj:yfkg ;ldlt pkfWoIfM ;Dk'0f{ s'df/ nfdf :fb:oM cfrfo{ gf]j'{ z]kf{ ;b:oM 6Lsf z]kf{ :fb:oM :fb:oM :f"o{jHf| nfdf ;b:oM 6f;L s'df/ nfdf ;b:oM gL/h nfdf ;b:oM df]xg vltj8f f/f k|:t't cjwf/0ff kq @)^& kf}if #) af}4 lzIff sfo{qmd-School of Buddhism)M ;~rfng ;fGble{stf != kl/roM hg;xeflutfdf ;~rflnt af}4 ax'd'vL SofDk;n] o;} jif{ lqe'jg ljZjljBfnoaf6 ;DjGwg k|fKt u/L JoJf:yfkg ;+sfosf] tLg aif]{ JfLaLP; sIff ;~rfng u/]sf]5 . clxn] pRr lzIffdf u'0f:t/sf] eGbf nufgL tyf d'gfkmfsf] k|lt:kWff{ pRr x'b} uO/x]sf] ;Gbe{df af}4 If]qdf hg;xof]u tyf ;xeflutfdf d'gfkmf /xLt z}lIfs ;+:yfsf] :yfkgfn] pRr lzIffdf o; If]qsf ;j} k]zf, Joj;foL, pBdL tyf ;fdflhs ;/f]sf/jfnfxs?sf] of]ubfg dxTjk"0f{ 5 eGg] s'/f a'g ;lsG5 . Go'gtd z'Nsdf u'0f:t/Lo lzIff lbg] clek|fon] ljZjljBfnoLo lzIffdf ;j}sf] kx'Fr x'g'k5{ eGg] dfGotf cg'?k o; SofDk;n] pb3f6g jif{sf] ;Gbe{df AfLaLP;sf 5fqfx?nfO{ kmf/d z'Ns ? !)) dfq lnO{ of] jif{ lgz'Ns cWofkgsf] ;'ljwf pknAw u/fPsf]5 . tLg jif]{ aLaLP;df dlxnfx?nfO{ Ps jif{ lgz'Nstfsf] Joj:yf u/]/ pRr lzIffdf dlxnfx?nfO{ cj;/ k|bfg ug]{ of] lemgf] k|of;sf] lg/Gt/tf rfFlx ;dfh, /fi6sf] ;xof]u / ;befjdf g} e/k5{ eGg] nfUb5 . t;y{ af}4 SofDk; ;fdflhs lhDd]af/L k|lt cfgf] OdfGbf/Ltf k|s6 ub{5 / lg/Gt/tfsf] c7f]6 ub{5. SofDk; :yfkgfsf] ;Gbe{df ul/Psf k|ltj4tfx?, SoDk;sf] ;fj{hlgs e};s]sf] b; jif]{ sfo{qmdsf] nIf Pjd :yfgLo j'l4hLlj tyf ;dfh;]jLx?sf] ck]Iff cg'?k o; SoDk;n] af}4 lzIff (Buddhist Studies) sf] z}lIfs sfo{qmdnfO{ klg ;df]j]z ug]{ k|of; u/]sf]5 . lzIffnfO{ :yfgLo cfjZostf tyf ;dflhs ljlzi6tf cg';f/ jgfOg' k5{ eGg] Wo]osf ;fy o; SofDk;n] af}4 lzIffsf] sfo{qmd k|:t't u/]sf]5 . ljljwtfk"0f{ ef}uf]lns ljlzi6tf, eflifs / ;fF:s[lts cg]stf tyf /fli6o Pstf g]kfnsf df}lns kl/ro x'g\ . cem SofDk;sf] cjl:yltnfO{ x]g]{ xf] eg] klg af}4 If]qsf] P]ltxfl;s, k'/ftflTjs ljz]iftf tyf snf Pjd\ ;F:s[ltn] /fli6o / cGt/fli6o dxTj kfPsf]5 . o;} ;Gbe{df af}4 lzIff dfkm{t jf}4 bz{g, snf, ;flxTo, Oltxf;, ;F:s[lt tyf k'/ftflTjs ljlzi6tfsf] cWoog, cWofkg, cg';Gwfg u/L k"jL{o bz{gsf] k|j4{g ug{ afG5gLo 5 . dfgjhftLsf] sNof0fsf lgldQ ;dtfd'ns ;dfhsf] lgdf{0fdf j'4sf pkb]zx? ;j}sf nflu cfbz{ jGg ;S5g . P]ltxfl;s n'lDjgL, :joDe" tyf jf}4gfy h:tf :yfgx? wdf{jnDJfLx?sf nflu lty{:yn, zf]w tyf cg';Gwfgstf{x?sf nflu P]ltxfl;s tyf k'/ftflTjs dxTjsf 5g\ . t;y{ dfgj ;Eotfsf] ljsf;qmdnfO{ j'em\g klg af}4 lzIff -bz{g_ ;xof]uL x'g ;S5 . jf}4 lzIffnfO{ jftfj/0f , ;fdflhs ;befj tyf Gb lg?k0f ug]{ pkfosf] ?kdf klg o;sf] cWoog eO/x]sf] b]lvG5 . klZrdf ljfg tyf ljz]if1x?n] ;d]t cTolws rf;f] lbO/x]sf] k"jL{o af}4 bz{gsf] h;sf] pb\ej kRrL; ;o jif{ cl3 g]kfne"dLjf6 ePsf] lyof] , k|j4{g ug'{ xfd|f] ;femf st{Jo xf] eGg] xfdLnfO{ nfUb5 . oL g} k|z:t ;+efjgfx?sf jLrdf cjl:yt af}4 If]qdf :yflkt o; jf}4 jx'd'vL SofDk;n] af}4 lzIffnfO{ ;dfj]z ub}{ af}4 ;+:s[lt tyf snfsf] k|j4{g ug{ :fS5 eGg] ljZjf; JoQm ug{ ;lsG5 . @= af}4 ax'd'vL SofDk;df af}4 lzIffsf] cf}lrTotfM af}4 ax'd'vL SofDk;n] af}4 lzIffsf] cf}krfl/s k|j]zsf] k|:tfjnfO{ o;sf] cjl:ylt hxfF blIf0f Plzofs} 7"nf] af}4 :t'kf /x]sf] 5 h'g af}4 wd+{sf ltyf{n'f/f lgTo cleGflGbt x'G5 Pjd\ ko{6sLo cfsif{0f k|fKt u/]sf]5, n] a'4 hGd]sf] b]z eg]/ lrlgg] g]kfnsf] 5ljnfO{ cGt/fli6o:t/df ;d]t k|rf/ dxTj k|bfg ug]{ tyf snf ;flxTo cf} ;+:s[ltsf] ;+/If0f tyf k|j4{g ug]{ ;Gbe{jf6 j'em\g cfjZos 5 . hg:t/jf6 o; If]qdf ePsf] of] k|of;n] snfsf] Jofj;flos ljsf;,Kf'/ftflTjs cg';Gwfg tyf cGt/fli6o ;DjGw lj:tf/df ;d]t of]ubfg k'ofpg ;S5 . P]ltxfl;s w/f]x/x?sf] ;+/If0f, ;Dj4{g tyf cWoog s]jn /fHosf]dfq bfloTj xf]Og clkt' ;fdflhs ?kn] xfdL ;j}sf] gfu/Ls st{Jo klg xf] . o;y{ af}4 lzIffnfO{ s]jn pkflwsf] ?kdf dfq xf]Og Jofj;flos tyf hLjgf]kof]uL lzIffsf] ?kdf ;d]t ljsf; ug{ cfjZos 5 . af}4 ;flxTosf] k|rf/ k|;f/, af}4 ;+:s[ltnfO{ af:t'snf, d'lt{snf, wft'snf, lrqsnf -yfFsf_ ;d]tdf k|ltljlDjt x'g] u/L tT;DjlGw bIf hgzlQm pTkfbg u/L lzIffnfO{ k]zfut ljlzli6s/0fsf] ljsf;df ;3fp k'ofpFb} g]kfnsf] ul/dfnfO{ cGt/fli6o Voflt;FUf hf]8g ;lsG5 . /fli6o Pstf d'n'ssf] snf / ;F:s[lt;Fu hf]l8Psf] x'G5 / To:tf] ;fdflhs ;F:s[lt ;dfhsf] ;Fof} jf xhf/f} jif{sf] clj/fd cEof;jf6 >[lht x'G5 h;nfO{ hglxtsf kIfdf pkof]u ug{ ;lsG5 . t;y{ To:tf] ;F:s[ltsf] ;Dj4{gdf ;j}sf] rf;f] / lrGtf cfjZos 5 . o;n] ko{6sLo lj:tf/sf] ;DefjgfnfO{ ;d]t yk of]ubfg k'ofpg ;Sb5 . af}4 If]q ToxL snf, ;flxTo / ;F:s[ltn] k"0f{ pj{/ If]q ePsfn] af}4 lzIffsf] cWoog cg';Gwfgsf nflu pkof]uL x'g ;S5 eg] o;} If]qdf cjl:yt af}4 u'Djfx?df cEof; u/LPsf] u'?s'n k4ltsf] u'Djf lzIffnfO{ klg klg kl/dfh{g u/L ljBfno lzIff tyf ljZjljBfno lzIffsf] ;dsIfL!jgfpg] dfu pl7/x]sf] ;Gbe{df pbfx/0fLo AfGg ;Sb5 . #= ;fdflhs k|efjM af}4 lzIffn] o; If]qdf /x]sf ;j} hfthftL wd{ ;Dk|bfo jLr ;f}xfb|{ ;DjGwsf] ljsf; ug{, P]ltxfl;s tyf k'/ftflTjs cWoogdf ?rL a9fpg, af}4 ;F:s[lt / snf ;Fu hf]l8Psf P]ltxfl;s :ynx?sf] cWoog, cjnf]sg ug{ u/fpg ;d]t clek|]l/t ub{5 . :yfgLo hgr]tgfn] dfq} Tof] If]qsf] jfXo Wofgfsif{0f u/fpg ;Sb5 . o;y{ af}4 lzIffn] :yfgLo snf / ;Lksf] ljsf;df hgrf;f] a9fpg ;xof]u ub{5 eg] b}lgs hLjgdf ;Dos ljrf/ lrGtgsf nflu k|]/0ffbfoL x'g ;Sb5 . cem egf} af}4 lzIffn] k]zfut ljlzli6s/0fsf If]qx? h:t} snf, ;flxTo, cGf';Gwfg, ko{6g cflbsf] ljsf;df ;d]t 6]jf k'ofpFb5 . $= af}4 lzIff sfo{qmdx?M af}4 lzIff ;~rfng ;DjGwdf af}4 SofDk;n] k|:tfj u/]sf sfo{qmdx? o; k|sf/ /x]sf 5g\ M s_ ljZjljBfnoLo af}4 lzIffM DffGotf k|fKt ljZjljBfnojf6 ;DjGwg k|fKt u/L :gfts tx, Ps jif]{ lkhLl8, jf :gftsf]Q/ txdf af}4 lzIffsf] ;DjGwg k|fKt u/L sIff ;~rfng ug]{, v_ cfwf/e't af}4 lzIff -Fundamental Buddhist Studies_M of] lzIff ljZjljBfno pkflwsf nflu ge} :yfgLo / jfXo cfaZostf cg'?k ;a}sf nflu x'g]5 . !_ :yfgLo cfjZostfM cgf}krfl/s lzIffdf ?rL /fVg] ;j} hftL, wd{, ;Dk|bfosf nflu cfwf/e't af}4 bz{g,snf, ;flxTo tyf k'/ftflTjs ljz]iftfx? jf/] hfgsf/L u/fpg] k|s[ltsf] cfjlws sIff ;~rfng x'g]5 . o;df u'Djf sIffsf ljBfyL{x? klg ;dfj]z x'g]5g\ . @_ afXo cfjZostf - ljb]zL ko{6s nlIft sfo{qmd_M of] sfo{qmd af}4 bz{gdf ?rL /fVg] ljb]zL ko{6sx?sf nflu af}4 bz{g cWoog s]Gb| -Buddhist Learning Centre_ sf] ?kdf af}Wb bz{g, Wofg, of]u cflb jf/] clt cNksflng -Llbj;Lo, qLlbj;Lo, ;fKtflxs jf kflIfs_ sfo{qmdx? ;~rfng u/Lg]5g\ . #_ Jofj:fflos snfsf] ljsf; ;DjlGw sfo{qmdM o; cGtu{t af}4 ;F:s[lt emNsg] wft', d'lt{, lrqsnf tyf k'/ftflTjs cWoog, cg';Gwfg;Fu ;DjlGwt Jofjxfl/s sIff -Applied Buddhist Studies_ x? ;~rfng x'g]5g\ . %= ;~rfng sfo{ljlwM s_ cf}krfl/s sIff ;~rfngM DffGoftf k|fKt ljZjljBfnojf6 ;DjGwg k|fKt u/L :gfts jf ;f] eGbf dflysf sIffx? ;~rfng ug]{ :fDjGwdf M  ljZjljBfnon] lgwf{/0f u/]sf] kf7\oqmd, kf7\oef/, d'NofFsg k|0ffnLsf] k"0f{ kfngf ug]{,  lglZrt z'Nssf] lgwf{/0f ug]{,  ljxfgL sIff :f~rfng ug]{,  sIff ;~rfngsf nflu dfGotf k|fKt ljZjljBfnosf bLlIft tyf of]Uotf k'u]sf k|lzIfsx?f/f cWofkg u/fOg],  pRr lzIffdf :jb]zL tyf ljb]zL ljBfyL{ nlIft sfo{qmdx? ;~rfng ug]{, v_ cgf}krfl/s sIff ;~rfngM  of] sIff af}4 bz{g ;flxTodf ?rL /fVg] ;j}sf nflu pkof]uL x'g]5 .  kf7\oqmd, kf7\oef/ tyf d'NofFsg ljlwsf nflu ljZjljBfnosf lafg, ljz]if1 tyf af}4 wd{sf u'?x? ;lDdlnt ;ldltn] lgwf{/0f u/] cg'?k x'g]5 .  cGo wd{ ;F:s[ltsf] kl/ro ;lxt af}4 bz{g, snf, ;flxTo, Oltxf; cflbsf] ljifo ;"rL ;dfj]z x'g ;Sg]5 .  of] sIff cfjlws tyf k|fljlws k|s[ltsf] x'g]5 .  sIff ;~rfngdf Wofg tyf of]u klg ;xfos x'g]5g\ .  k|To]s ;xeflujf6 Go'gtd z'Ns ;+sng u/Lg]5 .  ;Gbe{ ;"rLdf lxgofg, jh|ofg tyf dxfofgsf ljifoj:t'x? ;dfj]z x'g ;Sg]5g\ .  sIffnfO{ Joj:fflos tyf k]zfut ljlzli6s/0f ug{ wft'snf, lrqsnf, d'lt{snf, k'/ftflTjs cg';Gwfgsf nflu z'Ns ;lxtsf ljz]if k|fljlws sIffsf] ljsf; ug]{ .  ljxfgL sIffsf] sfo{qmd -b}lgs @ jf # 306f_ ;~rfng ug]{ .  k|lzIf0fsf] dfWod efiff lnlk kfnL, ;Def]6 jf cFu|hL x'g]5 .  k|lzIffyL{x?nfO{ oftfoftsf] ;'ljwf pknJw u/fpg k|of; u/Lg]5 . u_ ko{6s nlIft sfo{qmdM  of] sfo{qmd Buddhist Learning Center (BLC) sf] gfdjf6 ;~rflnt x'g]5 .  of] sfo{qmd z'Ns ;lxtsf] x'g]5 .  cfjZostf cg'?k Llbj;Lo jf qLlbj;Lo jf ;fKtflxs jf kflIfs sfo{qmdsf] nflu kf7\oqmdsf] Joj:yf u/Lg]5 .  af}4 ;+:s[lt snf emNsg] ;+u|x sIfsf] lgdf{0f ug{ k|of; u/Lg]5 .  BLC sf nflu a]Un} cfw'lgs k"jf{wf/sf] Joj:yf u/Lg]5 .  sfo{qmd ;~rfngsf nflu bIf of]Uo tyf ljb]zL efiff ljz]if1sf] klg ;xof]u lnOg]5 . 3_ sfo{qmdsf] pkof]lutf >[hgf ug{ lgDglnlvt ljlwx?sf] ljsf; ug{ ;lsg]5 M  8s'd]G6L lgdf{0f, k':ts tyf k'l:tsfx?sf] k|sfzg,  ;fF:s[lts emfFsLx?sf] k|bz{g,  ;fj{hlgs uf]li7, ;]ldgf/ cflb . ^_ k"jf{wf/sf] ljsf;M sIff ;~rfngsf nflu ef}lts k"jf{wf/x?sf] kof{Kt Joj:yf ePsf] x'g'kg]{5 . cem cf}Kfrfl/s ljZjljBfnoLo sIff ;~rfngsf nflu ljZjljBfnon] tf]s]sf] ef}lts k"jf{wf/sf] dfkb08 cjnDjg ug{ cfjZos 5 . ejg sIff sf]7f, k':tsfno, v]nd}bfg, z}lIfs ;fdfu[ sDKo'6/ ;'ljwf cflbsf] plrt Joj:yfkgdf Wofg k'ofpg' kg]{ x'G5 . cf}krfl/s tyf cgf}krfl/s sIff ;~rfngsf nflu laBfnosf lgoldt sIffx?nfO{ k|lts'n k|efj gx'g] u/L ljBfno sIff sf]7fx?sf] lh0ff]{4f/, dd{t ;+ef/ ub}{ ;~rfng ug{ cfjZos 5 . oBlk ljb]zL ko{6sx?sf nflu nlIft Buddhist Learning Centre sf] k"jf{wf/ eg] cfw'lgs ejgdf ef8fdf lnO{ ;~rfng ug{ pko'Qm x'g]5 . &_ ;+efjgfx?M  hg:t/jf6 af}4 lzIffnfO{ :f+:yfut u/L k|rf/, k|;f/ tyf lj:tf/ ug{ ;lsg],  af}Wb lzIffnfO{ Jofjxfl/s lZfIffsf] ?kdf Jofj;flos tyf k]zfut ljlzli6s/0fsf] dfWodjf6 ljsf; ug]{,  af}4 ;+:s[lt snf ;flxTo bz{g cflbsf] jf/]df cWoog , cg';Gwfg ug{ clek|]l/t ug]{ tyf o'jf :j/f]huf/ sfo{qmdnfO{ ;3fpm k'Ug] u/L 6'/ ufO8, wft'snf lrqsnf cflbsf] ljsf; ug]{,  af}4 bz{g, ;+:s[lt ;Fu ;DjlGwt 8s'd]G6L, clen]v tof/ ug]{ tyf k':ts k'l:tsfx?sf] k|sfzg ug]{,  ;fDk|bflos ;befj tyf /fi6sf P]ltxfl;s d7 dlGb/, u'Djf, r}To ljxf/ cflbsf] ;+/If0f ;Dj4{gdf hgr]tgf hufpg],  :yfgLo snf / ;+:s[ltsf] ;+/If0f ug]{,  ko{6g k|j4{g ug{ ;3fpm k'ofpg],  cGt/f{li6o s'6g}lts xflb{stfsf] ljsf;df ;3fpm k'Ug],  sIff * ;Dd af}4 lzIffsf kf7\oqmdx? tof/ eO{ cWofkg ;d]t ePsf] cj:yfdf cgf}krfl/s sIff ;~rfng ug{ ;xof]u k'Ug],  af}4 lzIffnfO{ Buddhist Learning Centre sf] dfWodjf6 lbuf] cflYf{s sfo{qmd (Sustainable Economic Program) ljsf; u/L SofDk;sf cGo Zf}lIfs sfo{qmdx? ;~rfng ug{ ;xof]u k'Ug],  af}4 lzIffsf nflu ljfg tyf ljz]if1x?sf] pknJwtfsf] sf/0fn] sIff ;~rfng ;xh x'g] . *_ r'gf}ltx?M -Major Challanges) s_ cfly{s ;d:ofx?M SofDk;sf] cfg} lgoldt >f]tsf] cefjsf sf/0f cf}krfl/s tyf cgf}krfl/s af}4 lzIff sfo{qmd ;~rfngdf jfwf k'Ug ;Sg] , v_ k'af{wf/sf] ;Df:ofM laBfnosf] l;ldt ef}lts k'af{wf/ tyf cf+lzs ;dodf cWoog cWofkg ug'{ kg]{ ePsfn] af}4 lzIffsf] Joj;flos sIff ;~rfngdf sl7gfO{ x'g], ;fYf} BLC sIff ;~rfngsf nflu cfw'lgs k"af{wf/sf] Joj:yf ug'{ kg]{ ePsfn] cfly{s >f]t Joj:yfkgdf sl7gfO{ x'g] . (+_ /0fg}lts pkfox? (Strategic Measures)M af}4 lzIffsf cf}krfl/s ty cgf}krfl/s sIfx?nfO{ Jojl:yt tyf k|efjsf/L agfpg] ;DjGwdf lgDglnlvt /0fg}lts pkfox?sf] cjnDjg ug'{ jf~5gLo b]lvG5 M  af}4 If]qsf wfld{s tyf ;fdflhs rl/qsf ;+3 ;+:yfx?sf] ;xof]u, ;xeflutf tyf ;fem]bf/Ldf sfo{qmd ;~rfng ug]{,  gu/kflnsf, lhNnfljsf; ;ldlt, ljZjljBfno cg'bfg cfof]u Pjd\ ljZjljBfno ;Fu ;DfGjo ug]{,  g]kfn ;/sf/sf ;DjlGwt dGqfno tyf ljefux? ;Fu ;DfGjo u/L sfo{qmd ;~rfng ug]{,  ljb]zL s'6lglts lgof]ux?jf6 ;xof]usf] ck]Iff,  cgf}krfl/s lzIffnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbb} cf}krfl/s ljZjljBfnoLo af}4 lzIffsf] k|rf/ k|;f/ ug]{,  sfo{qmd cfkm}df ;fWo xf]Og ;fwg dfq xf] . ctM af}Wb lzIffsf] pkflw kl5 s|]< eGg] k|Zgsf] pQ/df Jojxfl/s jf}4 lzIffdf hf]8 lbg],  sfo{qmdsf] k|rf/ k|;f/sf nflu SofDk;n] cfg} a]e ;fO6 tyf OG6/g]6, Od]nsf] lgdf{0f, k|of]u ug]{,  af}4 wd{, bz{g tyf snfdf ?rL /fVg] ko{6sx?sf nflu :yflgo xf]6n, 6'/ P08 6fen Ph]G;L dfkm{t ;dGjo u/L BSC k|rf/ ;fdfu[ ljt/0f ug]{,  sIffnfO{ k|efjsf/L jgfpg ;Dej eP;Dd Wofg of]u lzlj/ ;~rfng ug]{, tyf af}4, r}To ljxf/ cflbsf] z}lIfs e|d0f u/fpg],  BLC sfo{qmd dfkm{t jflif{s yk b'O{ xhf/ ko{6s af}4 If]qdf leqofpg ;lsof]] dfq eg] o;n] af}4 If]qsf] ljsf; tyf SofDk;sf] cfly{s ljsf;df ;xof]u k'Ug ;Sb5 ,  cgf}krfl/s tyf BLC sfo{qmdsf] ;~rfng SofDk;sf] Joj:yfkg ;ldltaf6 lgld{t ljfg tyf ljz]if1 ;lDdlnt ljz]if ;ldltn] lgwf{/0f u/] jdf]lhd x'g;Sg]5 . !)= sfo{qmd nfut tyf cfo ljj/0fM qmd ;+Vof ljj/0f cg'dflgt nfut ? cg'dflgt cfo ljj/0f ? s_ nfut ljj/0f ! cf}krfl/s :gfts sIff :fDjGwg #%),))) @ k':tsfno k':ts @)),))) # tnj tyf k|zf;lgs vr{ !@,)),))) $ k|rf/ k|;f/ vr{, ;ef uf]i7L @)),))) % BLC sfo{qmd 3/jxfn jflif{s ^,)),))) ^ BLC sfo{qmd ;~rfng vr{ jflif{s !%,)),))) & kmlg{r/ tyf kmlg{l;+u %,)),))) * ljBfno ef}lts k"jf{wf/ dd{t ;+ef/ @%),))) ( sDKo'6/ Nofj tyf sfof{no :yfkgf #%),))) v_ cfo ljj/0f !) z'Ns cfDbfgL aflif{s -BLC_ sIff ;d]t !%,)),))) !! ;+:Yffut ;xof]u #^,%),))) hDdf ? %!,%),))) %!,%),))) ============================))))))))))))))))===================== af}4 ax'd'vL SofDk;sf] af}4 lzIff sfo{qmd-Buddhist Studies Program)M ;~rfng ;fGble{stf ljifos cjwf/0ff kq SofDk; Joj:yfkg ;ldltsf] ldlt @)^& dfu{ @% sf] lg0f{o, af}4 lzIff ;+of]hg ;ldltsf] kf}if ( sf] lg0f{o tyf ljz]if1 e]nfsf] kf}if !% ut]sf] lg0f{o cg';f/ ul7t cjwf/0ff kq d:of}bf ;ldlt M :f+of]hs tyf Joj:yfkg ;ldlt pkfWoIfM ;Dk'0f{ s'df/ nfdf :fb:oM cfrfo{ gf]j'{ z]kf{ ;b:oM 6Lsf z]kf{ :fb:oM :fb:oM :f"o{jHf| nfdf ;b:oM 6f;L s'df/ nfdf ;b:oM gL/h nfdf ;b:oM df]xg vltj8f f/f k|:t't cjwf/0ff kq @)^& kf}if #) af}4 lzIff sfo{qmd-School of Buddhism)M ;~rfng ;fGble{stf != kl/roM hg;xeflutfdf ;~rflnt af}4 ax'd'vL SofDk;n] o;} jif{ lqe'jg ljZjljBfnoaf6 ;DjGwg k|fKt u/L JoJf:yfkg ;+sfosf] tLg aif]{ JfLaLP; sIff ;~rfng u/]sf]5 . clxn] pRr lzIffdf u'0f:t/sf] eGbf nufgL tyf d'gfkmfsf] k|lt:kWff{ pRr x'b} uO/x]sf] ;Gbe{df af}4 If]qdf hg;xof]u tyf ;xeflutfdf d'gfkmf /xLt z}lIfs ;+:yfsf] :yfkgfn] pRr lzIffdf o; If]qsf ;j} k]zf, Joj;foL, pBdL tyf ;fdflhs ;/f]sf/jfnfxs?sf] of]ubfg dxTjk"0f{ 5 eGg] s'/f a'g ;lsG5 . Go'gtd z'Nsdf u'0f:t/Lo lzIff lbg] clek|fon] ljZjljBfnoLo lzIffdf ;j}sf] kx'Fr x'g'k5{ eGg] dfGotf cg'?k o; SofDk;n] pb3f6g jif{sf] ;Gbe{df AfLaLP;sf 5fqfx?nfO{ kmf/d z'Ns ? !)) dfq lnO{ of] jif{ lgz'Ns cWofkgsf] ;'ljwf pknAw u/fPsf]5 . tLg jif]{ aLaLP;df dlxnfx?nfO{ Ps jif{ lgz'Nstfsf] Joj:yf u/]/ pRr lzIffdf dlxnfx?nfO{ cj;/ k|bfg ug]{ of] lemgf] k|of;sf] lg/Gt/tf rfFlx ;dfh, /fi6sf] ;xof]u / ;befjdf g} e/k5{ eGg] nfUb5 . t;y{ af}4 SofDk; ;fdflhs lhDd]af/L k|lt cfgf] OdfGbf/Ltf k|s6 ub{5 / lg/Gt/tfsf] c7f]6 ub{5. SofDk; :yfkgfsf] ;Gbe{df ul/Psf k|ltj4tfx?, SoDk;sf] ;fj{hlgs e};s]sf] b; jif]{ sfo{qmdsf] nIf Pjd :yfgLo j'l4hLlj tyf ;dfh;]jLx?sf] ck]Iff cg'?k o; SoDk;n] af}4 lzIff (Buddhist Studies) sf] z}lIfs sfo{qmdnfO{ klg ;df]j]z ug]{ k|of; u/]sf]5 . lzIffnfO{ :yfgLo cfjZostf tyf ;dflhs ljlzi6tf cg';f/ jgfOg' k5{ eGg] Wo]osf ;fy o; SofDk;n] af}4 lzIffsf] sfo{qmd k|:t't u/]sf]5 . ljljwtfk"0f{ ef}uf]lns ljlzi6tf, eflifs / ;fF:s[lts cg]stf tyf /fli6o Pstf g]kfnsf df}lns kl/ro x'g\ . cem SofDk;sf] cjl:yltnfO{ x]g]{ xf] eg] klg af}4 If]qsf] P]ltxfl;s, k'/ftflTjs ljz]iftf tyf snf Pjd\ ;F:s[ltn] /fli6o / cGt/fli6o dxTj kfPsf]5 . o;} ;Gbe{df af}4 lzIff dfkm{t jf}4 bz{g, snf, ;flxTo, Oltxf;, ;F:s[lt tyf k'/ftflTjs ljlzi6tfsf] cWoog, cWofkg, cg';Gwfg u/L k"jL{o bz{gsf] k|j4{g ug{ afG5gLo 5 . dfgjhftLsf] sNof0fsf lgldQ ;dtfd'ns ;dfhsf] lgdf{0fdf j'4sf pkb]zx? ;j}sf nflu cfbz{ jGg ;S5g . P]ltxfl;s n'lDjgL, :joDe" tyf jf}4gfy h:tf :yfgx? wdf{jnDJfLx?sf nflu lty{:yn, zf]w tyf cg';Gwfgstf{x?sf nflu P]ltxfl;s tyf k'/ftflTjs dxTjsf 5g\ . t;y{ dfgj ;Eotfsf] ljsf;qmdnfO{ j'em\g klg af}4 lzIff -bz{g_ ;xof]uL x'g ;S5 . jf}4 lzIffnfO{ jftfj/0f , ;fdflhs ;befj tyf Gb lg?k0f ug]{ pkfosf] ?kdf klg o;sf] cWoog eO/x]sf] b]lvG5 . klZrdf ljfg tyf ljz]if1x?n] ;d]t cTolws rf;f] lbO/x]sf] k"jL{o af}4 bz{gsf] h;sf] pb\ej kRrL; ;o jif{ cl3 g]kfne"dLjf6 ePsf] lyof] , k|j4{g ug'{ xfd|f] ;femf st{Jo xf] eGg] xfdLnfO{ nfUb5 . oL g} k|z:t ;+efjgfx?sf jLrdf cjl:yt af}4 If]qdf :yflkt o; jf}4 jx'd'vL SofDk;n] af}4 lzIffnfO{ ;dfj]z ub}{ af}4 ;+:s[lt tyf snfsf] k|j4{g ug{ :fS5 eGg] ljZjf; JoQm ug{ ;lsG5 . @= af}4 ax'd'vL SofDk;df af}4 lzIffsf] cf}lrTotfM af}4 ax'd'vL SofDk;n] af}4 lzIffsf] cf}krfl/s k|j]zsf] k|:tfjnfO{ o;sf] cjl:ylt hxfF blIf0f Plzofs} 7"nf] af}4 :t'kf /x]sf] 5 h'g af}4 wd+{sf ltyf{n'f/f lgTo cleGflGbt x'G5 Pjd\ ko{6sLo cfsif{0f k|fKt u/]sf]5, n] a'4 hGd]sf] b]z eg]/ lrlgg] g]kfnsf] 5ljnfO{ cGt/fli6o:t/df ;d]t k|rf/ dxTj k|bfg ug]{ tyf snf ;flxTo cf} ;+:s[ltsf] ;+/If0f tyf k|j4{g ug]{ ;Gbe{jf6 j'em\g cfjZos 5 . hg:t/jf6 o; If]qdf ePsf] of] k|of;n] snfsf] Jofj;flos ljsf;,Kf'/ftflTjs cg';Gwfg tyf cGt/fli6o ;DjGw lj:tf/df ;d]t of]ubfg k'ofpg ;S5 . P]ltxfl;s w/f]x/x?sf] ;+/If0f, ;Dj4{g tyf cWoog s]jn /fHosf]dfq bfloTj xf]Og clkt' ;fdflhs ?kn] xfdL ;j}sf] gfu/Ls st{Jo klg xf] . o;y{ af}4 lzIffnfO{ s]jn pkflwsf] ?kdf dfq xf]Og Jofj;flos tyf hLjgf]kof]uL lzIffsf] ?kdf ;d]t ljsf; ug{ cfjZos 5 . af}4 ;flxTosf] k|rf/ k|;f/, af}4 ;+:s[ltnfO{ af:t'snf, d'lt{snf, wft'snf, lrqsnf -yfFsf_ ;d]tdf k|ltljlDjt x'g] u/L tT;DjlGw bIf hgzlQm pTkfbg u/L lzIffnfO{ k]zfut ljlzli6s/0fsf] ljsf;df ;3fp k'ofpFb} g]kfnsf] ul/dfnfO{ cGt/fli6o Voflt;FUf hf]8g ;lsG5 . /fli6o Pstf d'n'ssf] snf / ;F:s[lt;Fu hf]l8Psf] x'G5 / To:tf] ;fdflhs ;F:s[lt ;dfhsf] ;Fof} jf xhf/f} jif{sf] clj/fd cEof;jf6 >[lht x'G5 h;nfO{ hglxtsf kIfdf pkof]u ug{ ;lsG5 . t;y{ To:tf] ;F:s[ltsf] ;Dj4{gdf ;j}sf] rf;f] / lrGtf cfjZos 5 . o;n] ko{6sLo lj:tf/sf] ;DefjgfnfO{ ;d]t yk of]ubfg k'ofpg ;Sb5 . af}4 If]q ToxL snf, ;flxTo / ;F:s[ltn] k"0f{ pj{/ If]q ePsfn] af}4 lzIffsf] cWoog cg';Gwfgsf nflu pkof]uL x'g ;S5 eg] o;} If]qdf cjl:yt af}4 u'Djfx?df cEof; u/LPsf] u'?s'n k4ltsf] u'Djf lzIffnfO{ klg klg kl/dfh{g u/L ljBfno lzIff tyf ljZjljBfno lzIffsf] ;dsIfL!jgfpg] dfu pl7/x]sf] ;Gbe{df pbfx/0fLo AfGg ;Sb5 . #= ;fdflhs k|efjM af}4 lzIffn] o; If]qdf /x]sf ;j} hfthftL wd{ ;Dk|bfo jLr ;f}xfb|{ ;DjGwsf] ljsf; ug{, P]ltxfl;s tyf k'/ftflTjs cWoogdf ?rL a9fpg, af}4 ;F:s[lt / snf ;Fu hf]l8Psf P]ltxfl;s :ynx?sf] cWoog, cjnf]sg ug{ u/fpg ;d]t clek|]l/t ub{5 . :yfgLo hgr]tgfn] dfq} Tof] If]qsf] jfXo Wofgfsif{0f u/fpg ;Sb5 . o;y{ af}4 lzIffn] :yfgLo snf / ;Lksf] ljsf;df hgrf;f] a9fpg ;xof]u ub{5 eg] b}lgs hLjgdf ;Dos ljrf/ lrGtgsf nflu k|]/0ffbfoL x'g ;Sb5 . cem egf} af}4 lzIffn] k]zfut ljlzli6s/0fsf If]qx? h:t} snf, ;flxTo, cGf';Gwfg, ko{6g cflbsf] ljsf;df ;d]t 6]jf k'ofpFb5 . $= af}4 lzIff sfo{qmdx?M af}4 lzIff ;~rfng ;DjGwdf af}4 SofDk;n] k|:tfj u/]sf sfo{qmdx? o; k|sf/ /x]sf 5g\ M s_ ljZjljBfnoLo af}4 lzIffM DffGotf k|fKt ljZjljBfnojf6 ;DjGwg k|fKt u/L :gfts tx, Ps jif]{ lkhLl8, jf :gftsf]Q/ txdf af}4 lzIffsf] ;DjGwg k|fKt u/L sIff ;~rfng ug]{, v_ cfwf/e't af}4 lzIff -Fundamental Buddhist Studies_M of] lzIff ljZjljBfno pkflwsf nflu ge} :yfgLo / jfXo cfaZostf cg'?k ;a}sf nflu x'g]5 . !_ :yfgLo cfjZostfM cgf}krfl/s lzIffdf ?rL /fVg] ;j} hftL, wd{, ;Dk|bfosf nflu cfwf/e't af}4 bz{g,snf, ;flxTo tyf k'/ftflTjs ljz]iftfx? jf/] hfgsf/L u/fpg] k|s[ltsf] cfjlws sIff ;~rfng x'g]5 . o;df u'Djf sIffsf ljBfyL{x? klg ;dfj]z x'g]5g\ . @_ afXo cfjZostf - ljb]zL ko{6s nlIft sfo{qmd_M of] sfo{qmd af}4 bz{gdf ?rL /fVg] ljb]zL ko{6sx?sf nflu af}4 bz{g cWoog s]Gb| -Buddhist Learning Centre_ sf] ?kdf af}Wb bz{g, Wofg, of]u cflb jf/] clt cNksflng -Llbj;Lo, qLlbj;Lo, ;fKtflxs jf kflIfs_ sfo{qmdx? ;~rfng u/Lg]5g\ . #_ Jofj:fflos snfsf] ljsf; ;DjlGw sfo{qmdM o; cGtu{t af}4 ;F:s[lt emNsg] wft', d'lt{, lrqsnf tyf k'/ftflTjs cWoog, cg';Gwfg;Fu ;DjlGwt Jofjxfl/s sIff -Applied Buddhist Studies_ x? ;~rfng x'g]5g\ . %= ;~rfng sfo{ljlwM s_ cf}krfl/s sIff ;~rfngM DffGoftf k|fKt ljZjljBfnojf6 ;DjGwg k|fKt u/L :gfts jf ;f] eGbf dflysf sIffx? ;~rfng ug]{ :fDjGwdf M  ljZjljBfnon] lgwf{/0f u/]sf] kf7\oqmd, kf7\oef/, d'NofFsg k|0ffnLsf] k"0f{ kfngf ug]{,  lglZrt z'Nssf] lgwf{/0f ug]{,  ljxfgL sIff :f~rfng ug]{,  sIff ;~rfngsf nflu dfGotf k|fKt ljZjljBfnosf bLlIft tyf of]Uotf k'u]sf k|lzIfsx?f/f cWofkg u/fOg],  pRr lzIffdf :jb]zL tyf ljb]zL ljBfyL{ nlIft sfo{qmdx? ;~rfng ug]{, v_ cgf}krfl/s sIff ;~rfngM  of] sIff af}4 bz{g ;flxTodf ?rL /fVg] ;j}sf nflu pkof]uL x'g]5 .  kf7\oqmd, kf7\oef/ tyf d'NofFsg ljlwsf nflu ljZjljBfnosf lafg, ljz]if1 tyf af}4 wd{sf u'?x? ;lDdlnt ;ldltn] lgwf{/0f u/] cg'?k x'g]5 .  cGo wd{ ;F:s[ltsf] kl/ro ;lxt af}4 bz{g, snf, ;flxTo, Oltxf; cflbsf] ljifo ;"rL ;dfj]z x'g ;Sg]5 .  of] sIff cfjlws tyf k|fljlws k|s[ltsf] x'g]5 .  sIff ;~rfngdf Wofg tyf of]u klg ;xfos x'g]5g\ .  k|To]s ;xeflujf6 Go'gtd z'Ns ;+sng u/Lg]5 .  ;Gbe{ ;"rLdf lxgofg, jh|ofg tyf dxfofgsf ljifoj:t'x? ;dfj]z x'g ;Sg]5g\ .  sIffnfO{ Joj:fflos tyf k]zfut ljlzli6s/0f ug{ wft'snf, lrqsnf, d'lt{snf, k'/ftflTjs cg';Gwfgsf nflu z'Ns ;lxtsf ljz]if k|fljlws sIffsf] ljsf; ug]{ .  ljxfgL sIffsf] sfo{qmd -b}lgs @ jf # 306f_ ;~rfng ug]{ .  k|lzIf0fsf] dfWod efiff lnlk kfnL, ;Def]6 jf cFu|hL x'g]5 .  k|lzIffyL{x?nfO{ oftfoftsf] ;'ljwf pknJw u/fpg k|of; u/Lg]5 . u_ ko{6s nlIft sfo{qmdM  of] sfo{qmd Buddhist Learning Center (BLC) sf] gfdjf6 ;~rflnt x'g]5 .  of] sfo{qmd z'Ns ;lxtsf] x'g]5 .  cfjZostf cg'?k Llbj;Lo jf qLlbj;Lo jf ;fKtflxs jf kflIfs sfo{qmdsf] nflu kf7\oqmdsf] Joj:yf u/Lg]5 .  af}4 ;+:s[lt snf emNsg] ;+u|x sIfsf] lgdf{0f ug{ k|of; u/Lg]5 .  BLC sf nflu a]Un} cfw'lgs k"jf{wf/sf] Joj:yf u/Lg]5 .  sfo{qmd ;~rfngsf nflu bIf of]Uo tyf ljb]zL efiff ljz]if1sf] klg ;xof]u lnOg]5 . 3_ sfo{qmdsf] pkof]lutf >[hgf ug{ lgDglnlvt ljlwx?sf] ljsf; ug{ ;lsg]5 M  8s'd]G6L lgdf{0f, k':ts tyf k'l:tsfx?sf] k|sfzg,  ;fF:s[lts emfFsLx?sf] k|bz{g,  ;fj{hlgs uf]li7, ;]ldgf/ cflb . ^_ k"jf{wf/sf] ljsf;M sIff ;~rfngsf nflu ef}lts k"jf{wf/x?sf] kof{Kt Joj:yf ePsf] x'g'kg]{5 . cem cf}Kfrfl/s ljZjljBfnoLo sIff ;~rfngsf nflu ljZjljBfnon] tf]s]sf] ef}lts k"jf{wf/sf] dfkb08 cjnDjg ug{ cfjZos 5 . ejg sIff sf]7f, k':tsfno, v]nd}bfg, z}lIfs ;fdfu[ sDKo'6/ ;'ljwf cflbsf] plrt Joj:yfkgdf Wofg k'ofpg' kg]{ x'G5 . cf}krfl/s tyf cgf}krfl/s sIff ;~rfngsf nflu laBfnosf lgoldt sIffx?nfO{ k|lts'n k|efj gx'g] u/L ljBfno sIff sf]7fx?sf] lh0ff]{4f/, dd{t ;+ef/ ub}{ ;~rfng ug{ cfjZos 5 . oBlk ljb]zL ko{6sx?sf nflu nlIft Buddhist Learning Centre sf] k"jf{wf/ eg] cfw'lgs ejgdf ef8fdf lnO{ ;~rfng ug{ pko'Qm x'g]5 . &_ ;+efjgfx?M  hg:t/jf6 af}4 lzIffnfO{ :f+:yfut u/L k|rf/, k|;f/ tyf lj:tf/ ug{ ;lsg],  af}Wb lzIffnfO{ Jofjxfl/s lZfIffsf] ?kdf Jofj;flos tyf k]zfut ljlzli6s/0fsf] dfWodjf6 ljsf; ug]{,  af}4 ;+:s[lt snf ;flxTo bz{g cflbsf] jf/]df cWoog , cg';Gwfg ug{ clek|]l/t ug]{ tyf o'jf :j/f]huf/ sfo{qmdnfO{ ;3fpm k'Ug] u/L 6'/ ufO8, wft'snf lrqsnf cflbsf] ljsf; ug]{,  af}4 bz{g, ;+:s[lt ;Fu ;DjlGwt 8s'd]G6L, clen]v tof/ ug]{ tyf k':ts k'l:tsfx?sf] k|sfzg ug]{,  ;fDk|bflos ;befj tyf /fi6sf P]ltxfl;s d7 dlGb/, u'Djf, r}To ljxf/ cflbsf] ;+/If0f ;Dj4{gdf hgr]tgf hufpg],  :yfgLo snf / ;+:s[ltsf] ;+/If0f ug]{,  ko{6g k|j4{g ug{ ;3fpm k'ofpg],  cGt/f{li6o s'6g}lts xflb{stfsf] ljsf;df ;3fpm k'Ug],  sIff * ;Dd af}4 lzIffsf kf7\oqmdx? tof/ eO{ cWofkg ;d]t ePsf] cj:yfdf cgf}krfl/s sIff ;~rfng ug{ ;xof]u k'Ug],  af}4 lzIffnfO{ Buddhist Learning Centre sf] dfWodjf6 lbuf] cflYf{s sfo{qmd (Sustainable Economic Program) ljsf; u/L SofDk;sf cGo Zf}lIfs sfo{qmdx? ;~rfng ug{ ;xof]u k'Ug],  af}4 lzIffsf nflu ljfg tyf ljz]if1x?sf] pknJwtfsf] sf/0fn] sIff ;~rfng ;xh x'g] . *_ r'gf}ltx?M -Major Challanges) s_ cfly{s ;d:ofx?M SofDk;sf] cfg} lgoldt >f]tsf] cefjsf sf/0f cf}krfl/s tyf cgf}krfl/s af}4 lzIff sfo{qmd ;~rfngdf jfwf k'Ug ;Sg] , v_ k'af{wf/sf] ;Df:ofM laBfnosf] l;ldt ef}lts k'af{wf/ tyf cf+lzs ;dodf cWoog cWofkg ug'{ kg]{ ePsfn] af}4 lzIffsf] Joj;flos sIff ;~rfngdf sl7gfO{ x'g], ;fYf} BLC sIff ;~rfngsf nflu cfw'lgs k"af{wf/sf] Joj:yf ug'{ kg]{ ePsfn] cfly{s >f]t Joj:yfkgdf sl7gfO{ x'g] . (+_ /0fg}lts pkfox? (Strategic Measures)M af}4 lzIffsf cf}krfl/s ty cgf}krfl/s sIfx?nfO{ Jojl:yt tyf k|efjsf/L agfpg] ;DjGwdf lgDglnlvt /0fg}lts pkfox?sf] cjnDjg ug'{ jf~5gLo b]lvG5 M  af}4 If]qsf wfld{s tyf ;fdflhs rl/qsf ;+3 ;+:yfx?sf] ;xof]u, ;xeflutf tyf ;fem]bf/Ldf sfo{qmd ;~rfng ug]{,  gu/kflnsf, lhNnfljsf; ;ldlt, ljZjljBfno cg'bfg cfof]u Pjd\ ljZjljBfno ;Fu ;DfGjo ug]{,  g]kfn ;/sf/sf ;DjlGwt dGqfno tyf ljefux? ;Fu ;DfGjo u/L sfo{qmd ;~rfng ug]{,  ljb]zL s'6lglts lgof]ux?jf6 ;xof]usf] ck]Iff,  cgf}krfl/s lzIffnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbb} cf}krfl/s ljZjljBfnoLo af}4 lzIffsf] k|rf/ k|;f/ ug]{,  sfo{qmd cfkm}df ;fWo xf]Og ;fwg dfq xf] . ctM af}Wb lzIffsf] pkflw kl5 s|]< eGg] k|Zgsf] pQ/df Jojxfl/s jf}4 lzIffdf hf]8 lbg],  sfo{qmdsf] k|rf/ k|;f/sf nflu SofDk;n] cfg} a]e ;fO6 tyf OG6/g]6, Od]nsf] lgdf{0f, k|of]u ug]{,  af}4 wd{, bz{g tyf snfdf ?rL /fVg] ko{6sx?sf nflu :yflgo xf]6n, 6'/ P08 6fen Ph]G;L dfkm{t ;dGjo u/L BSC k|rf/ ;fdfu[ ljt/0f ug]{,  sIffnfO{ k|efjsf/L jgfpg ;Dej eP;Dd Wofg of]u lzlj/ ;~rfng ug]{, tyf af}4, r}To ljxf/ cflbsf] z}lIfs e|d0f u/fpg],  BLC sfo{qmd dfkm{t jflif{s yk b'O{ xhf/ ko{6s af}4 If]qdf leqofpg ;lsof]] dfq eg] o;n] af}4 If]qsf] ljsf; tyf SofDk;sf] cfly{s ljsf;df ;xof]u k'Ug ;Sb5 ,  cgf}krfl/s tyf BLC sfo{qmdsf] ;~rfng SofDk;sf] Joj:yfkg ;ldltaf6 lgld{t ljfg tyf ljz]if1 ;lDdlnt ljz]if ;ldltn] lgwf{/0f u/] jdf]lhd x'g;Sg]5 . !)= sfo{qmd nfut tyf cfo ljj/0fM qmd ;+Vof ljj/0f cg'dflgt nfut ? cg'dflgt cfo ljj/0f ? s_ nfut ljj/0f ! cf}krfl/s :gfts sIff :fDjGwg #%),))) @ k':tsfno k':ts @)),))) # tnj tyf k|zf;lgs vr{ !@,)),))) $ k|rf/ k|;f/ vr{, ;ef uf]i7L @)),))) % BLC sfo{qmd 3/jxfn jflif{s ^,)),))) ^ BLC sfo{qmd ;~rfng vr{ jflif{s !%,)),))) & kmlg{r/ tyf kmlg{l;+u %,)),))) * ljBfno ef}lts k"jf{wf/ dd{t ;+ef/ @%),))) ( sDKo'6/ Nofj tyf sfof{no :yfkgf #%),))) v_ cfo ljj/0f !) z'Ns cfDbfgL aflif{s -BLC_ sIff ;d]t !%,)),))) !! ;+:Yffut ;xof]u #^,%),))) hDdf ? %!,%),))) %!,%),))) ============================))))))))))))))))===================== Click Here








 
 
 
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